17 December 2012

Fundamental or Human Rights in Islam the religion of Peace.

Issue of fundamental or (also called) human rights became an issue of prominence and fundamental significance recently. From Magna Carta 1215 to The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 (UDHR) which is a milestone document in the recent history of human rights, the concept of human rights  took on practical meaning since the last two hundred years only.

The claim that the world first derived the concept of basic human rights from the Magna Carta of Britain is not correct because the Magna Carta contained only the principles of trial by jury, Habeas Corpus and control by Parliament of the right of taxation. Thereafter, although the constitutions of many countries contained references to basic human rights, more often than not these rights existed only on paper. Unfortunately, still the Declaration of Universal Human Rights consists of just expressions of aspirations and hopes. They have no sanctions behind them and there is no force, physical or moral, to enforce them.
Despite all the high-sounding resolutions of the United Nations, human rights continue to be violated and trampled upon.

Now we come to the fundamental or human rights in Islam that had been granted by God. Fourteen centuries ago.
Rights granted by kings or legislative assemblies can be withdrawn or amended as easily as they are conferred. The rights accepted and recognized by the dictators are also too temporary to be relied upon. They can confer rights when they please and withdraw them when they wish; and they can openly violate them when they so desire.

 But no individual and no institution on earth have the authority to withdraw or amend the rights bestowed upon by God. Secondly, being the unequivocal verdict of the Holy Quran and part and parcel of the Islamic faith, these rights excel in every respect and from every angle all the charters and the proclamations and the resolutions of the United Nations.

 Thirdly, Islam does not seek to restrict human rights or privileges to the geographical limits of its own state but applies to humanity as a whole and these are to be observed and respected under all circumstances for all persons residing within or outside the territory of the Islamic state.

Islam is a perfect code of life. Islam has given men and women equal rights in every aspect of life

Now we enumerate the fundamental rights ordained in Islam as below:
·       Security of Life and Property-The first and foremost basic right is the right to life According to the Quran, no person is allowed to grab or snatch anyone’s property
·       Equality of mankind
·       Right to Acquire Knowledge
·       Right to Basic Necessities of Life
·       Freedom to all religions
·       Sanctity and Security of Privacy:
·       The Individual’s Right to Freedom
·       Freedom of Conscience -There be no compulsion in religion. (2:256)
·       Rule of Law-Islam gives its citizens the right to absolute and complete equality in the eyes of the law.
·       No Liability for Actions of Others:-There is no liability for actions of others and Islam also recognizes the right of the individual not to be arrested or imprisoned for the offenses of others.
·       The Right to Protest against Tyranny: Among the rights that Islam has conferred on human beings is the right to protest against government’s tyranny.
·       Free Trade
·       Freedom of Expression: Islam gives the right of freedom of thought and expression to all citizens of the Islamic state on the condition that it should be used for the propagation of virtue and truth and not for spreading evil and wickedness.
·       Right to develop one’s Aesthetic Qualities and Enjoy the Bounties of God
·       Respect for the Chastity of Women-In the Charter of Human Rights granted by Islam a woman’s chastity has to be respected and protected under all circumstances, whether she belongs to our own nation or even to that of an enemy, whether we find her in the wild forest or in a conquered city; whether she is our co-religionist or belongs to some other religion or has no religion at all.
·        Protection from Arbitrary Imprisonment
·        The Right to Participate In the Affairs Of State
·       Freedom of Association:
·       Protection of Religious Sentiments:
·       The Right to Justice: This is a very important and valuable right which Islam has given to man.
·       Rulers Not Above the Law
·       The Right to Justice: This is a very important and valuable right which Islam has given to man.
·       The Protection of Honor.

Women’s Rights in Islam
Islam is a perfect code of life. Islam has given men and women equal rights in every aspect of life.
The rights of Muslim women were given to us by Allah (SWT), who is All-Compassionate, All-Merciful, All-Just, All-Unbiased, All-Knowing and the Most Wise. These rights, which were granted to women more than 1400 years ago, and were taught by the perfect example of the Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon Him, were given by the one Who created us and Who alone knows what rights are the best for our female natures.
Islam considers a woman to be equal to a man as a human being and as his partner in this life. Women have been created with a soul of the same nature as men.
Allah (SWT) says in the Quran;
"O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever and custodian over you." (Al-Nisa 4:1)
And in the words of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW);
"Assuredly, women are the twin halves of men." (Abu-Dawud)

In a truly Islamic society women have the following basic or Fundamental rights in Islam:
·       The right and duty to obtain education.
·       The right to have their own independent property.
·       The right to work to earn money if they need it or want it.
·       Equality of reward for equal deeds.
·       The right to express their opinion and be heard.
·       The right to provisions from the husband for all her needs and more.
·       The right to negotiate marriage terms of her choice.
·       The right to obtain divorce from her husband, even on the grounds that she simply can't stand him. (pls. note that God deeply frowns upon divorce as a solution unless there is hardly any other alternative but it does not mean that men have more right to divorce their wives than women do.)
·       The right to keep all her own money (she is not responsible to maintain any relations).
·       The right to get sexual satisfaction from her husband.
·       Custody of their children after divorce.
·       To refuse any marriage that does not please them

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