30 November 2015

Secularism in India

“Western dictionaries define secularism as absence of religion but Indian secularism does not mean irreligiousness. It means profusion of religions.” -Shashi Tharoor
Secularism or Secular State means “A State, which does not recognize any religion as State religion, but treats all religions equally”. Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. Secularism means asserting the right of the people to be free from religious rule and teachings, or residing in a state declared to be neutral on matters of belief, from the imposition by government of religion or religious practices upon its people. Another feature of secularism is that the public activities and decisions, especially political ones, should be uninfluenced by religious beliefs and/or practices.
According to Webster’s dictionary the word ‘secularism’ means a sprit or tendency especially a system of political or social philosophy that rejects all forms of religious faiths or worship or the view that the matters of civil policy should be conducted without the influence of religious beliefs:
Oxford Dictionary defines the word ‘secular’ as concerned with the affairs of this world, worldly not sacred, not monastic, not ecclesiastical.
In the words of Asgar Ali Engineer, Secularism means liberation of politics from the hegemony of religion.

The term "secularism" was first used by the British writer George Jacob Holyoake in 1851. According to Holyoake "secularism" means promoting a social order separate from religion, without actively dismissing or criticizing religious belief.
Secularism in India:
In the West, the word secular implies three things: freedom of religion, equal citizenship to each citizen regardless of his or her religion, and the separation of religion and state. Everyone is equal under law, and subject to the same laws irrespective of his or her religion, in the West.
Secularism in India means equal treatment of all religions by the state. Secularism in India does not mean separation of religion from state. Instead, secularism in India means a state that is neutral to all religious groups. India does not have an official state religion. The people of India have freedom of religion, and the state treats all individuals as equal citizens regardless of their religion. In India the laws implicitly require the state and its institutions to recognize and accept all religions, enforce religious laws instead of parliamentary laws, and respect pluralism.
Secularism – Constitutional Provisions In India:
Recently the BJP led NDA Government conducted a two-day debate to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution in the Constitute Assembly on Nov, 26th 1949. Union Home Minister Raj Nath Singh questioned the manner in which secularism is being used in contemporary discourse; Congress President Sonia Gandhi argued that the principles enshrined in the Constitution were under deliberate attack. It is true that the Constitution originally had no reference to secularism, and the word was introduced only in 1976. Yet in terms of the emphasis it gave to religious freedom, freedom of conscience, equality and non-discrimination, the constitution was indeed imbued with the secular spirit, the 42nd Amendment merely made it explicit.
Secular means the relationship between the government and the people which is determined according to constitution and law. Secularism is the basic structure of the Indian constitution. The Government respects all religions. It does not uplift or degrade any particular religion. There is no such thing as a state religion for India. In S.R. Bommai vs UOI (1994) The SC of India held "A state which does not recognize any religion as the state religion, it treats all religions equally". Positively, Indian secularism guarantees equal freedom to all religion. it stands for the right to freedom of religion for all citizens. Explaining the meaning of secularism as adopted by India, Alexander Owics has written, "Secularism is a part of the basic of the Indian Constitution and it means equal freedom and respect for all religions."
It is true that the word ‘secular’ did not first occur either in Article 25 or 26 or in any other Article or Preamble of the Constitution. By the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976, the Preamble was amended and for the words ‘Sovereign Democratic Republic’ the words ‘Sovereign, socialist, secular, Democratic Republic’ were substituted. The Constitution declares India to be a sovereignsocialistseculardemocratic republic, assuring its citizens of justiceequality, and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity among them. .With the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution of India , the Preamble to the Constitution asserted that India is a secular nation.
Various provisions of Indian Constitution contemplate the secular nature of India. Article 14,15,16,17 along with Article 25-28 and 44 sufficiently provides intention of the framers of the Constitution.
Constitutional Provisions:
1.No discrimination on the basis of religion-
Art. 14 grants equality before law and equal protection of law and provide that the State shall not discriminate against any person on the ground of religion.
Art. 15- Article 15(1) provides that the State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
Article 15(2) provides that “no citizen on the ground only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them………….” thus, Article 15 promotes the notion of Secularism.
Article 16 prohibits discrimination on the ground religion in public employment.
Article 17 prohibits untouchability and provides bedrock of secularism.
2. No State Religion
There shall be no ‘state religion’ in India. The state will neither establish a religion of its own nor confer any special patronage upon any particular religion.
It follows from that:
1. The state will not compel any citizen to pay any tax for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institution (Article 27).
2. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly run by state funds.
3. Even though religious instruction is imparted in educational institutions recognized by state or receiving aid from the state, no person at lending such institution shall be compelled to receive that religious instruction without the consent of himself or of his guardian. In short, while religious instruction is totally banned in state-owned educational institutions, in other denominational institutions it is not totally prohibited but it must not be imposed upon people of other religions without their consent (Article 28).
3. Freedom of Conscience
Every person is guaranteed the freedom of conscience and the freedom to profess, practice and propagate his own religion-Article 25
4. Freedom to Manage Religious Affairs:
Every religious groups or denominations has the right to
         To establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes.
         To manage its own affairs in matters of religion.
         To own and acquire movable and immovable property; and
         To administer such property in accordance with law-Article 26
5. Cultural and Educational Rights: Under Article 29 and 30 certain cultural and educational rights are guaranteed.
Article 29 guarantees the right cf any section of the citizens residing in any part of the country having a distinct language, script or culture of its own and to conserve the same
Article 30 provides that all minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”.
Most Important components of secularism in Indian Constitution  are as under :
Samantha (equality) is incorporated in article 14;
Prohibition against discrimination on the ground of religion, caste, etc. is incorporated in articles 15 and 16;
Freedom of speech and expression and all other important freedoms of all the citizens are conferred under article 19 and 21;
Right to practice religion is conferred under articles 25 and 28;
Fundamental duty of the state to exact uniform civil laws treating all the citizens as equal, is imposed by Article 44;
Sentiment of majority of the people towards the cow and against its slaughter was incorporated in articles 48.
Sarva Dharma Sambha
Supreme Court of India observed in the case of Aruna Roy v. UOI[30] when it said Indian secularism means “Sarva Dharma Sambhav” and not “Sarva Dharma abhav” meaning “equal feeling for all religions” and not “no feeling for any religion”.
Legal  position of Secularism in India
Although the term secularism was not in the original text of the Constitution, secularism was a subject of animated discussion when the Constituent Assembly looks up for consideration the provisions dealing with the freedom of religion.
Explaining the secular character of the Indian Constitution the Supreme Court observed: “There is no mysticism in the secular character of the state. Secularism is neither anti-God nor pro-God; it treats alike the devout, the agnostic and the atheist. It eliminates God from the matter of the state and ensures no one shall be discriminated against on the ground of religion. Justice Reddy said that the constitutional commitment to secularism is to a great extent a commitment to the pursuit of ‘Social Justice’ and ‘Equality of Status and Opportunity.’
In Bommai case the Supreme Court declared it as the “basic feature” of the Constitution. The Apex Court has declared secularism as the basic feature of the Indian Constitution in the landmark case of Kesavananda v. State of Kerala. This view was crystallize in S.R. Bommai v. Union of India (1994) and thus made unamendable.
 Secularism is a cardinal principle enshrined in the preamble and body of the Indian Constitution, adopted as a key feature and the cornerstone of the strategy of nation-building. Any step inconsistent with the constitutional policy is, in plain words, unconstitutional
Theory and Practice of Secularism in India
When Jawaharlal Nehru framed the objective Resolution of the Constitutor secularism figured as an important aspect of Constitution. Nehru associated secularism with modernity and considered sentiments based on caste and religion as backward and a belief from the past. He felt that religious tolerance, an essential aspect of secularism was a characteristic of Indian culture. Nehru described secularism as “an act of faith” in India’s future.
According to Nehru, A secular state, therefore, is not an anti-religious state but a state without a religion. It involves the concept of religious freedom for all faiths living within the state. Secularism is not only a characteristic of the state but involves the concept of religious co-existence and the concept of equal citizenship rights It also characterizes an attitude of mind which must be shared by the minority and majority religious communities living within the state.
Secularism as practiced in India, with its marked differences with Western practice of secularism, is always a controversial topic in India. Secularism is one of the major instruments for building a modern polity. It is one of the fundamental values of our national life, emphasized by the national movement and the Founding Fathers of the Republic. Secularism introduces science and rationalism in the society and forms the basis of a modern State. In 1976 the concept of secularism was apparently adopted as India’s path to political modernity and national integration
Secularism has to play a decisive role at present stage of Indian democracy. It is so because today when the Indian democracy seems to face the challenge of narrow divisive trends and tendencies. A rational and scientific approach which is the basis of secularism has become a matter of utmost importance. Communal disturbances which have distinguished the public life in the recent past, as well the birth and growth of narrow and divisive trends and obscurantist theories are mainly the result of ignorance can be fought not by legislation alone, nor by a negative fiat alone, but by education only. Secularism is India's national ideal, recognized as the only way to unify a diverse nation.
·       Wikipedia
·       Indian Constitution
·       HKHSOU-Study Material
·       Secularism in the Indian Context – S.Banerji
·       Legal Services india.Com
·       Legal desire.com

28 November 2015

100 Advices from Qura'n దివ్య ఖురాన్ లోని వంద సలహాలు.

1.      Do not mix the truth with falsehood (2:42)
సత్యాన్ని అసత్యం తో కలపకoడి.-2:42
2.      Order righteousness to people only after
practicing it yourself(2:44)
సన్మార్గాన్నిఅవలంభిచండి అని మీరు ఇతరులకు ఉపదేశిoచే ముందు మీరు ఆచరించి చూపండి.- 2:44.  
3.      Do not commit abuse on the earth (2:60)
ధరణిపై కల్లోలం రేకిస్తూ తిరగకండి.-2:60
4.      Do not prevent people from mosques (2:114)
 అల్లాహ్ ఆరాధనాలయాలలో ప్రజలను వెళ్ళకుండా ఆపకుండా ఉండండి.-2:114.
5.      Do not follow anyone blindly (2:170)
 దేనిని గుడ్డిగా అనుసరించ కండి.-2:170
6.      Do not break the promise (2:177)
వాగ్దానాలను భంగ పరచ కండి.-2:177.
7.      Do not engage in bribery (2:188)
 లంచం తీసుకోకండి.-2: 188.
8.      Fight only with those who fight you (2:190)
 మీతో పోరాడే వారితో అల్లాహ్ మార్గం లో పోరాడండి.-2:190.
9.      Keep the etiquettes of war (2:191)
యుద్ద నియమాలను పాటించండి.2:191.
10.  Protect orphans (2:220)
అనాధల సొమ్ము హరిoచ కండి/2:220
11.  Do not have sexual intercourse during
menstrual period (2:222)
రుతుకాలం లో కామ క్రీడలకు పాల్పడకండి.2: 222.
12.  Breast feed your children for two complete years (2:233)
తల్లులు తమ బిడ్డలకు పూర్తిగా రెండు సంవత్సరాలు పాలు పట్టాలి.-2:233.
13.  Choose rulers by their merit (2:247)
పాలకులను వారి అర్హతలను బట్టి ఎన్నుకోండి.-2:247.
14.  No compulsion in religion (2:256)
 ధర్మం విషయం లో నిర్భంధం గాని బలాత్కారం గాని లేవు. – 2:256.
15.  Do not invalidate charity with reminders (2:264)
దానం చేస్తున్నప్పుడు దానిని ప్రకటిoచ రాదు.-264.
16.  Help those in need by finding them (2:273)
ధన సహయానికి అర్హులను వెతికి పట్టుకోండి.-2:273.
17.  Don’t consume interest (2:275)
వడ్డి ని తీసుకోరాదు.-2:275.
18.  Grant more time to repay if the debtor is in hard time (2:280)
 బాకిదారుడు ఆర్ధిక ఇబ్బందులలో ఉంటె అతనికి గడువు ఇవ్వండి.-2:280.
19.  Write down the debt (2:282)
అప్పు వ్యవహారాన్ని వ్రాసి పదిల పరచండి.-2:282.
20.  Keep the trust (2:283)
 సాక్షం ను దాచకండి.-2:283.
21.  Do not spy and backbite (2:283)
 ఇతరులపై నిఘా పెట్టకండి మరియు వెన్ను పోటు పొడవకండి.-2:283.
22.  Believe in all prophets (2:285)
అందరు ప్రవక్తలను విశ్వసించండి.2:285.
23.  Do not burden a person beyond his scope (2:286)
 వ్యక్తి శక్తీ సామర్ద్యాలను మిoచిన బరువు బాద్యతలను మోపకండి. 2: 286.
24.  Do not become divided (3:103)
విబేదాలలో పడకండి.3:103.
25.  Restrain Anger (3:134)
కోపాన్ని దిగమింగoడి.-3:134.
26.  Do not be rude in speech (3:159)
వాక్కు లో కర్కాశo గా ఉండకుండండి.-3:159.
27.  Think deeply about the wonders and creation of this universe (3:191)
భూమి, ఆకాశాల నిర్మాణం గురించి చింతన చెయ్యండి.-3:191.
28.  Men and Women have equal rewards for their
deeds (3:195)
స్త్రీ,పురుషులకు లబించే ప్రతిపలం సమానం-3:195.
29.  Wealth of the dead should be distributed among
his family members (4:7)  
చనిపొయిన ఆస్తి అతని బంధువుల మద్య పంచండి. -4:7
30.  Women also have the right for inheritance (4:7)
 మహిళలకు కుడా వారసత్వ హక్కు ఉంది4:
31.  Do not devour the property of orphans (4:10)
 అనాధల సొమ్ము హరిoచ కండి.-4:10  
32.  Do not marry those in your blood relation (4:23)
రక్త సంభందికులను వివాహం అడకండి.-4:23.
33.  Do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly
ఇతరుల సొమ్ము అన్యాయంగా తినకండి.-4:29.
34.  Family should be led by men (4:34)
 కుటుంభం ను పురుషులు నడుపుతారు.-4:34.
35.  Be good to others (4:36)
ఇతరుల పట్ల ఆదరంగా వ్యవరించండి. 4:36.
36.  Do not be miserly (4:37)
లోభులుగా వ్యవరించకండి-4:37
 37.Do not keep envy (4:54).
ఈర్ష్య కు దూరంగా ఉండండి. -4:54.
38.Judge with justice between people (4:58)
 న్యాయం గా తీర్పు ప్రజల మద్య చెప్పండి 4:58.
39..Do not kill each other (4:92)
ఒక విశ్వాసి మరొక విశ్వాసి ని చంప రాదు.-4: 92.
40.Do not be an advocate for deceit (4:105)
నమ్మకద్రోహుల పక్షాన వాది గా నిలబడకు.-4:105.
41..Stand out firmly for justice (4:135)
న్యాయం పట్ల గట్టిగా నిలబడండి.-4:13
42.Cooperate in righteousness (5:2)
సత్కార్యాలలో సహకరించండి-5: 2.
43.Do not cooperate in sin and aggression (5:2)
 పాపం, అత్యాచారాలలో సహకరించకండి.5:2.
4.Dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine are
prohibited (5:3)
మృత జంతువు, రక్తము,పంది మాంసం  నిషిద్దం -5:3.
45.Be just (5:8)
న్యాయం చేయండి – 5:8.
46.Punish for crimes in an exemplary way (5:38)
 నేరస్తులను తగిన విధంగా శిక్షించండి.-5:38.
47.Strive against sinful and unlawful acts (5:63)
పాపపు మాటలు, అధర్మపు పనులు చేయకండి.-5:63.
48.Avoid intoxicants and alcohol (5:90)
మద్యానికి ద్రురంగా ఉండండి.-5:90.
49.Do not gamble (5:90)
 జూదానికి దూరంగా ఉండండి.-5:90.
50.Do not insult others’ deities (6:108)
ఇతరుల దైవాలను దూషించకండి.-6:108.
51.’Having majority’ is not a criterion of truth
మెజారిటీ మాత్రమే ఇతరులను అనుసరించడానికి మార్గం కాదు. 6:116.
52.Don’t reduce weight or measure to cheat people (6:152)
కొలతలు,తుకాలలో న్యాయం పాటించండి.-6:152.
53.Do not be arrogant (7:13)
గర్వ పడకండి.7:13.
54.Eat and Drink, But Be Not Excessive (7:31)
తినండి,త్రాగండి. కాని మీతిమిరకండి.-7:31.
55.Wear good cloths during prayer times (7:31)
ఆరాధన సమయం లో మంచిగా వస్త్రాలంకరణ చేసుకోండి.-7:31.
56.Forgive others for their mistakes (7:199)
ఇతరుల తప్పులను మన్నిచండి.-7:199.
57..Do not turn back in battle (8:15)
యుద్దరంగం లో వెన్ను చూపకండి.-8:15.
58..protect and help those who seek protection (9:6)
 శరణు కోరితే రక్షణ, ఆశ్రయం కల్పించండి.-9:6.
59..Keep Purity (9:108)
పరిశుద్దతను అవలంబించండి. 9:108.
60.Never give up hope of Allah’s Mercy (12:87)
దైవ కారుణ్యం పట్ల నిరాశ చెందకండి.-12:87.
61.Allah will forgive those who have done wrong out of ignorance (16:119)
 అజ్ఞానం కారణం గా చెడు చేసి, పిదప పశ్చాతాప పడిన వారిని క్షమించండి.-16:119.
62Invitation to God should be with wisdom and good instruction (16:125)
నీ ప్రభువు మార్గం వైపునకు వివేకంతో, చక్కని ఉపదేశం తో పిలువు.-16:125.
63.No one will bear others’ sins (17:15)
ఇతరుల తప్పులను మోయరాదు.-17:15.
64.Be dutiful to parents(17:23)
తల్లితండ్రుల పట్ల ఉత్తమ రీతిలో వ్యవరించండి.-17:23.
65.Do not say a word of disrespect to parents (17:23)
తల్లితండ్రులను కసురుకోవద్దు.-17:23.
66.Do not spend money extravagantly (17:29)
 విచ్చలివిడిగా ఖర్చు పెట్టకు.-17:29.
67.Do not kill your children for fear of poverty (17:31)
 మీ సంతానాన్ని దారిద్య భయం తో హతమర్చకండి.-17:31.
68.Do not even approach unlawful sexual intercourse (17:32)
వ్యబిచారం దరిదాపులకు పోకండి.-17:32.
69.Do not pursue that of which you have no knowledge (17:36)
నీకు తెలియని విషయం వెంటపడకు.-17:36.
70.Speak to people mildly (20:44)
ప్రజలతో మృదువుగా మాట్లాడండి.-20:44.
71.Keep aloof from what is vain (23:3)
వ్యర్ధ విషయాల పట్ల అనాసక్తత చూపండి.-23:3
72.Do not enter others’ houses without seeking
permission (24:27)
ఇతరుల ఇళ్ళ లోని కి వారి అనుమతి లేనిదే ప్రవేశించకండి-24:27.
73.Allah will provide security for those who believe only in Allah (24:55)
అల్లాహ్ యందు విశ్వశించిన వారికి అల్లాహ్ రక్షణ కల్పిస్తాడు -24:55.
74.Do not enter parents’ private room without
asking permission (24:58)
తల్లితండ్రుల గదులలోనికి అనుమతి తీసుకోని ప్రవేశించండి.-24:58.
75.Walk on earth in humility (25:63)
కరుణాముయుని దాసులు వినమ్రులై నడుస్తారు.-25:63.
76.Do not neglect your portion of this world (28:77)
 నీ ప్రాపంచిక వాటాను విస్మరించకు.-28:77.
77. Invoke not any other god along with Allah (28:88)
అల్లాహ్ తో వేరేతర దైవాన్ని మొరపెట్టుకోకు.-28.88.
78. Do not engage in homosexuality (29:29)
 స్వలింగ సంపర్కం కు పాల్పడకండి-29:29.
79. Enjoin right, forbid wrong (31:17)
మంచి పనులను చెయ్యి, చెడును వారించు.-31:17.
80. Do not walk in insolence through the earth (31:18)
 భువి లో నిక్కుతూ నడవకు.-31:18.
81. Lower your voice (31:19)
నీ కంఠ స్వరాన్ని తగ్గించు.-31:19.
82. Women should not display their finery (33:33)
స్త్రీలు  అలంకరణ ను ప్రదర్శించ  రాదు.-33:33.
83. Allah forgives all sins (39:53)
అల్లాహ్ అన్ని తప్పులను కమించును. 39:53.
84. Do not despair of the mercy of Allah (39:53)
దైవ కారుణ్యం పట్ల నిరాశ చెందకండి.-39:53.
85. Repel evil by good (41:34)
చెడు కు మంచి తో సమాదానం ఇవ్వు.-41:34.
86. Decide on affairs by consultation (42:38)
 పరస్పర సంప్రదింపులతో వ్యవహారం నడపండి.-42:38.
87. Try for settlement between people (49:9)
 ఇద్దరి మద్య రాజి కుదర్చింది.-49:9.
88. Do not ridicule others (49:11)
ఇతరులను ఎగతాళి చేయకండి.-49:11.
89. Avoid suspicion (49:12)
అనుమానాలకు దూరంగా ఉండండి.-49:12.
90. Do not spy or backbite (49:12)
 ఒకరిపై  ఒకరు కూపిలు లాగకండి, చాడీలు చెప్పకండి.-49:12.
91. Most noble of you is the most righteous (49:13)
 నిశ్చయంగా మీలో దైవభితి గలవాడే ఆదరనణియుడు.-49:13.
92. Honor guests (51:26)
 అతిడులను ఆదరించండి.-51:26.
93. Spend wealth in charity (57:7)
 సంపదను దానం చేయండి.-57:7.
94. No Monasticism in religion (57:27)
 మతం లో సన్యాసత్వం లేదు.57:27.
95. Those who have knowledge will be given a higher degree by Allah (58:11)
 జ్ఞానము ఒసగబదినవారి అంతస్తు అల్లాహ్ పెంచుతాడు.-58:11.
96. Treat non-Muslims in a kind and fair manner (60:8
ముస్లింలు కాని వారితో సద్వ్యవహారం నడపండి.-60:8
97. Save yourself from covetousness (64:16)
 శత్రువులనుండి అప్రమమతంగా ఉండoడి.-64:16.
98. Seek forgiveness of Allah. He is Forgiving and Merciful (73:20) అల్లాహ్ నుండి క్షమా కోరండి, అతను చాల దయాళువు మరియు క్షమించే వాడు.-73:20.
99. Do not repel one who asks (93:10)
 యాచించే వారిని కసురుకోకు.-93:10.
100. Encourage feeding poor (107:3)
నిరుపేదలకు అన్నం పెట్టమని ప్రోత్సహించు.-107:3.